Posts by Rene Najera

I'm a fourth-year doctoral candidate in the Doctor of Public Health program at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. All opinions posted here are my own, of course, and they do not necessarily reflect the opinions of my school, employers, friends, family, etc. Feel free to follow me on Twitter: @EpiRen
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Single Bite, Multiple Problems

The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene is having its 65th annual meeting this week, and one of the abstracts that is raising eyebrows is this abstract on the possibility of co-infection of a mosquito with multiple Flaviviruses:

“Therefore, we determined the competence of Aedes aegypti (Poza Rica, Mexico) and Aedes albopictus (Florida) mosquitoes exposed to bloodmeals containing more than one Aedes-borne arbovirus. Specifically, mosquitoes were given a blood meal containing American strains of DENV-2, CHIKV or ZIKV in single infections, as well as combinations of the three viruses as double and triple infections. Mosquitoes were kept for 5, 7, 9 and 14 days extrinsic incubation, at which point mosquito bodies, legs and saliva were collected to determine infection, dissemination and transmission rates. Presence of viral RNA was determined by multiplex qRT-PCR for DENV-2, CHIKV and ZIKV in order to determine RNA levels for the individual viruses in mosquitoes exposed to more than one virus. Preliminary results suggest that coinfection may impact vector competence in a virus-specific manner.”

Basically, the mosquitoes seem to have the ability to carry multiple viruses at one time, making it perfectly possible that they could infect a person with these viruses in one bite. However, this is a lab study, and there is no evidence right now that this is the case in the real world. In fact, the authors (from Colorado State University) do state earlier in the abstract that “in 2015 an increase in CHIKV infections coincided with a drop in dengue cases in Mexico and Colombia. While this could be due to yearly variation, it could also be related to the introduction of CHIKV which may be outcompeting DENV in mosquitoes.”

The rest of the abstracts on West Nile and other Flaviviruses can be seen by clicking here.

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The First Microcephalic Child in Puerto Rico, That We Know of, Associated With Zika Is Born

One of the things you need to keep in mind about all public health surveillance is that the numbers presented are the best estimate of what is really going on. In some instances, the number will be an overestimate of the true number of cases because the system is too sensitive and is picking up too many false positives. This is what you want when you don’t want to miss any cases. On the other hand, if you want to minimize the “chasing around” of false positive cases, then you want the system to be more specific, leading to an underestimate of the true number of cases. Where on the sensitivity-specificity spectrum a system falls depends on what your needs are.

With that in mind, let’s look at a significant event that was reported from Puerto Rico this week. A child was born with Zika-associated microcephaly, according to NBC:

“The baby was born in the past two weeks with severe brain defects as well as hearing and vision problems and remains hospitalized, according to Health Secretary Ana Rius. She said authorities are investigating why the microcephaly case was identified so late although the mother had Zika symptoms between her second and third month of pregnancy. She added that the mother did not receive continuous prenatal care until late in her second trimester.”

That part about not knowing why the case was identified late is a normal artifact of any public health surveillance system. Unless you have 100% recording/reporting of cases at 100% of possible locations where 100% of pregnant women are receiving any kind of care — including home deliveries — then you are not going to catch all the cases. Of course, this is troubling to those who would like to know the full impact of the Zika outbreak, and to those in the general population who want to know what the true burden of the disease is as well as their risk of contracting Zika and suffering consequences.

Another big unknown about Zika is how many total cases will be found when it is all said and done, and whether or not Zika will find a permanent home on the island. Either way, the expectations are dire. Again, from the NBC article:

“Puerto Rico has a Zika epidemic with nearly 31,500 cases reported, including more than 2,400 in pregnant women. A total of 233 people have been hospitalized and six deaths have been reported, four of them linked to Zika and other medical conditions and the remaining two to a paralyzing condition called Guillain-Barre syndrome known to be caused by Zika and other infections.

The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention expects a surge of babies born with severe deformities in Puerto Rico in upcoming months. A recent study estimates that up to 10,300 pregnant women on the island could be infected with Zika and that between 100 to 270 babies could be born with microcephaly.”

Those are 100 to 270 children with microcephaly, costing all of us (everyone),”about $4 million per child.” And that’s just the children we’ll know about because of the surveillance system. There are likely to be plenty who are not picked up by the system, are not born full-term (or miscarried), or are born outside Puerto Rico but originated in that outbreak. How policy drives the epidemiology, and how the epidemiology drives policy are all questions still up in the air.

Zika and Safe Sex

When cases of Zika started popping up in people who did not have a documented mosquito exposure, epidemiologists started to wonder if Zika could be transmitted from one person to another through some other way. As it turns out, Zika can be transmitted through sexual contact. Since unborn fetuses are at highest risk for complications from the mother being infected, it is essential that men who have been exposed to Zika use condoms when having sex with a pregnant woman. For how long? Six months.

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What We Know and Don’t Know About Zika

The first time I heard about Zika was last year, when I was in Colombia over the summer doing my DrPH practicum. We went to a small town in the jungle to investigate an outbreak of Chikungunya. It was a very interesting experience for me because the outbreak investigations I had participated in at DHMH didn’t usually include fieldwork. My contact with people affected by outbreaks was mostly over the phone, asking them questions about their condition. This time, I was in the jungle, surrounded by soldiers with big guns (to protect us from the rebels), seeing how people were being affected by a pretty bad arboviral infection.
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